Major Sins



"O you who believe! Why say you that which you do not? It is most hateful in the sight of God that you say that which you do not." [61:2-3]

"If you avoid the major (sins) which you are forbidden, We will remit from you your evil deeds and make you enter at a noble gate." [4:31]

"And serve God. Ascribe nothing as partner to Him. Be kind to parents, and to near relatives, and orphans, and the needy, and to the neighbour who is of relative and the neighbour who is not of relative, and the fellow-traveller and the wayfarer and (the slaves) whom your right hands possess. Lo! God loves not such as are proud and boastful, Who hoard their wealth and enjoin avarice on others, and hide that which God has bestowed upon them of His bounty. We prepare a shameful doom for disbelievers, and those who spend their wealth in order to be seen of men, and believe not in God nor the Last Day." [4:36-38]

"Lo! God forgives not that a partner should be ascribed to Him. He forgives except that to whom He will. Whoever ascribes partners to God, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin." [4:48]

"Lo! God pardons not that partners should be ascribed to Him. He pardons all except that to whom He will. Whoso ascribes partners to God has wandered far astray." [4:116]

"O you who believe! You be staunch in justice, witnesses for God, even though it be against yourselves or parents or relatives, whether a rich man or a poor man, for God is nearer to both. So follow not passion lest you lapse; and if you lapse or fall away, then lo! God is ever Informed of what you do." [4:135]

"Say: Come, I will recite to you that which your Lord has made a sacred duty for you: That you ascribe no thing as partner to Him and that you do good to parents, and that you slay not your children because of penury - We provide for you and for them - and that you draw not nigh to lewd things whether open or concealed. And that you slay not the life which God has made sacred, except in the course of justice. This He has commanded you, in order that you may discern. And approach not the wealth of the orphan except with that which is better, till he reach maturity. Give full measure and full weight, in justice. We task not any soul beyond its scope. And if you give your word, do justice to it, even though it be (against) a relative; and fulfil the covenant of God. This He commands you that haply you may remember: This is My straight path, so follow it. Follow not other ways, lest you be parted from His way. This has He ordained for you, that you may ward off (evil)." [6:151-153]

"Lo! We have made the devils protecting friends for those who believe not. And when they do some lewdness they say: We found our fathers doing it and God has enjoined it on us. Say: God, verily, enjoins not lewdness. Tell you concerning God that which you know not ? Say: My Lord enjoins justice. And set your faces upright at every place of worship and call upon Him, making religion pure for Him." [7:27-29]

"Say: My Lord forbids only indecencies, such of them as are apparent and such as are within, and sin and wrongful oppression, and that you associate with God that for which no warrant has been revealed, and that you tell concerning God that which you know not." [7:33]

"Set not up with God any other god lest you sit down reproved, forsaken. Your Lord has decreed, that you worship none except Him, and be kind kindness to parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age with you, say not "Ough" to them nor repulse them, but speak to them a gracious word. And lower to them the wing of submission through mercy, and say: My Lord! Have mercy on them both as they did care for me when I was little. Your Lord is Best Aware of what is in your minds. If you are righteous, then lo! He was ever Forgiving to those who turn (to Him). Give the relative his due, and the needy, and the wayfarer; and squander not in wantonness. Lo! the squanderers were ever brothers of the devils, and the devil was ever ingrate to his Lord. But if you turn away from them, seeking mercy from your Lord, for which you hope, then speak to them a reasonable word. And let not your hand be chained to your neck nor open it with a complete opening, lest you sit down rebuked, denuded. Lo! your Lord for whom He will enlarges and lessons the provision. Lo, He was ever Knower, Seer of His slaves. Slay not your children, fearing a fall to poverty, We shall provide for them and for you. Lo! the slaying of them is great sin. And come not near to adultery. Lo! it is an abomination and an evil way. And slay not the life which God has forbidden except with right. Whoso is slain wrongfully, We have given power to his heir, but let him not commit excess in slaying. Lo! he will be helped. Come not near the wealth of the orphan except with that which is better till he come to strength; and keep the covenant. Lo! of the covenant it will be asked. Fill the measure when you measure, and weigh with a right balance; that is meet, and better in the end. Follow not that whereof you have no knowledge. Lo! the hearing and the sight and the heart - of each of these it will be asked. And walk not in the earth exultant. Lo! you cannot rend the earth, nor can you stretch to the height of the hills. The evil of all that is hateful in the sight of your Lord. This is (part) of that wisdom wherewith your Lord has inspired you (O Mohammed). And set not up with God any other god, lest you be cast into hell, reproved, abandoned." [17:22-39]

[Compiled from Holy Quran on 23 July 2012.]


Hijab in Koran



Surah Al Noor [ The Light ]


“O ye who believe! Follow not the footsteps of the devil. Unto whomsoever followeth the footsteps of the devil, lo! he commandeth filthiness and wrong. Had it not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy unto you, not one of you would ever have grown pure. But Allah causeth whom He will to grow. And Allah is Hearer, Knower. And let not those who possess dignity and ease among you swear not to give to the near of kin and to the needy, and to fugitives for the cause of Allah. Let them forgive and show indulgence. Yearn ye not that Allah may forgive you? Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. Lo! as for those who traduce virtuous, believing women (who are) careless, cursed are they in the world and the Hereafter. Theirs will be an awful doom. On the day when their tongues and their hands and their feet testify against them as to what they used to do, On that day Allah will pay them their just due, and they will know that Allah, He is the Manifest Truth.
Vile women are for vile men, and vile men for vile women. Good women are for good men, and good men for good women; such are innocent of that which people say: For them is pardon and a bountiful provision.

O ye who believe! Enter not houses other than your own without first announcing your presence and invoking peace upon the folk thereof. That is better for you, that ye may be heedful. And if ye find no-one therein, still enter not until permission hath been given. And if it be said unto you: Go away again, then go away, for it is purer for you. Allah knoweth what ye do. (It is) no sin for you to enter uninhabited houses wherein is comfort for you. Allah knoweth what ye proclaim and what ye hide.
Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands' fathers, or their sons or their husbands' sons, or their brothers or their brothers' sons or sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigour, or children who know naught of women's nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto Allah together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed. And marry such of you as are solitary and the pious of your slaves and maid- servants. If they be poor, Allah will enrich them of His bounty. Allah is of ample means, Aware. And let those who cannot find a match keep chaste till Allah give them independence by His grace. And such of your slaves as seek a writing (of emancipation), write it for them if ye are aware of aught of good in them, and bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He hath bestowed upon you. Force not your slave-girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, lo! Allah will be Forgiving, Merciful. And verily We have sent down for you revelations that make plain, and the example of those who passed away before you. An admonition unto those who ward off (evil).

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon light. Allah guideth unto His light whom He will. And Allah speaketh to mankind in allegories, for Allah is Knower of all things. (This lamp is found) in houses which Allah hath allowed to be exalted and that His name shall be remembered therein. Therein do offer praise to Him at morn and evening. Men whom neither merchandise nor sale beguileth from remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying to the poor their due; who fear a day when hearts and eyeballs will be overturned; That Allah may reward them with the best of what they did, and increase reward for them of His bounty. Allah giveth blessings without stint to whom He will. As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are as a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one supposeth it to be water till he cometh unto it and findeth it naught, and findeth, in the place thereof, Allah Who payeth him his due; and Allah is swift at reckoning. Or as darkness on a vast, abysmal sea. There covereth him a wave, above which is a wave, above which is a cloud. Layer upon layer of darkness. When he holdeth out his hand he scarce can see it. And he for whom Allah hath not appointed light, for him there is no light. Hast thou not seen that Allah, He it is Whom all who are in the heavens and the earth praise, and the birds in their flight? Of each He knoweth verily the worship and the praise; and Allah is Aware of what they do. And unto Allah belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and unto Allah is the journeying.”

Surah Al Ahzab [ The Clans ]


“O Prophet! Say unto thy wives: If ye desire the world's life and its adornment, come! I will content you and will release you with a fair release. But if ye desire Allah and His messenger and the abode of the Hereafter, then lo! Allah hath prepared for the good among you an immense reward. O ye wives of the Prophet! Whosoever of you committeth manifest lewdness, the punishment for her will be doubled, and that is easy for Allah. And whosoever of you is submissive unto Allah and His messenger and doeth right, We shall give her her reward twice over, and We have prepared for her a rich provision. O ye wives of the Prophet! Ye are not like any other women. If ye keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft of speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease aspire (to you), but utter customary speech. And stay in your houses. Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the Time of Ignorance. Be regular in prayer, and pay the poor-due, and obey Allah and His messenger. Allah's wish is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the Household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing. And bear in mind that which is recited in your houses of the revelations of Allah and wisdom. Lo! Allah is Subtile, Aware.
Lo! men who surrender unto Allah, and women who surrender, and men who believe and women who believe, and men who obey and women who obey, and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth, and men who persevere (in righteousness) and women who persevere, and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty), and men who remember Allah much and women who remember - Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward.
And it becometh not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His messenger have decided an affair (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair; and whoso is rebellious to Allah and His messenger, he verily goeth astray in error manifest. And when thou saidst unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favour and thou hast conferred favour: Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear Allah. And thou didst hide in thy mind that which Allah was to bring to light, and thou didst fear mankind whereas Allah hath a better right that thou shouldst fear Him. So when Zeyd had performed that necessary formality (of divorce) from her, We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth) there may be no sin for believers in respect of wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them. The commandment of Allah must be fulfilled. There is no reproach for the Prophet in that which Allah maketh his due. That was Allah's way with those who passed away of old - and the commandment of Allah is certain destiny - Who delivered the messages of Allah and feared Him, and feared none save Allah. Allah keepeth good account.
Mohammed is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is ever Aware of all things.
O ye who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance. And glorify Him early and late. He it is Who blesseth you, and His angels (bless you), that He may bring you forth from darkness unto light; and He is ever Merciful to the believers. Their salutation on the day when they shall meet Him will be: Peace. And He hath prepared for them a goodly recompense.
O Prophet! Lo! We have sent thee as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And as a summoner unto Allah by His permission, and as a lamp that giveth light. And announce unto the believers the good tidings that they will have great bounty from Allah. And incline not to the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Disregard their noxious talk, and put thy trust in Allah. Allah is sufficient as Trustee.
O ye who believe! If ye wed believing women and divorce them before ye have touched them, then there is no period that ye should reckon. But content them and release them handsomely.
O Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast paid their dowries, and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war, and the daughters of thine uncle on the father's side and the daughters of thine aunts on the father's side, and the daughters of thine uncle on the mother's side and the daughters of thine aunts on the mother's side who emigrated with thee, and a believing woman if she give herself unto the Prophet and the Prophet desire to ask her in marriage - a privilege for thee only, not for the (rest of) believers - We are Aware of that which We enjoined upon them concerning their wives and those whom their right hands possess - that thou mayst be free from blame, for Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful. Thou canst defer whom thou wilt of them and receive unto thee whom thou wilt, and whomsoever thou desirest of those whom thou hast set aside (temporarily), it is no sin for thee (to receive her again); that is better; that they may be comforted and not grieve, and may all be pleased with what thou givest them. Allah knoweth what is in your hearts (O men), and Allah is ever Forgiving, Clement. It is not allowed thee to take (other) women henceforth, nor that thou shouldst change them for other wives even though their beauty pleased thee, save those whom thy right hand possesseth. And Allah is ever Watcher over all things.

O Ye who believe! Enter not the dwellings of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time, unless permission be granted you. But if ye are invited, enter, and, when your meal is ended, then disperse. Linger not for conversation. Lo! that would cause annoyance to the Prophet, and he would be shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of the truth. And when ye ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask it of them from behind a curtain. That is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not for you to cause annoyance to the messenger of Allah, nor that ye should ever marry his wives after him. Lo! that in Allah's sight would be an enormity. Whether ye divulge a thing or keep it hidden, lo! Allah is ever Knower of all things. It is no sin for them (thy wives) to converse freely) with their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or the sons of their sisters or of their own women, or their slaves. O women! Keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is ever Witness over all things. Lo! Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. O ye who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation. Lo! those who malign Allah and His messenger, Allah hath cursed them in the world and the Hereafter, and hath prepared for them the doom of the disdained. And those who malign believing men and believing women undeservedly, they bear the guilt of slander and manifest sin. O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad). That will be better, so that they may be recognised and not annoyed. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.
If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and the alarmists in the city do not cease, We verily shall urge thee on against them, then they will be your neighbours in it but a little while. Accursed, they will be seized wherever found and slain with a (fierce) slaughter. That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old; thou wilt not find for the way of Allah aught of power to change.
Men ask thee of the Hour. Say: The knowledge of it is with Allah only. What can convey (the knowledge) unto thee? It may be that the Hour is nigh. Lo! Allah hath cursed the disbelievers, and hath prepared for them a flaming fire, Wherein they will abide for ever. They will find (then) no protecting friend nor helper. On the day when their faces are turned over in the Fire, they say: Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and had obeyed His messenger! And they say: Our Lord! Lo! we obeyed our princes and great men, and they misled us from the Way. Our Lord! Oh, give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse.
O ye who believe! Be not as those who slandered Moses, but Allah proved his innocence of that which they alleged, and he was well esteemed in Allah's sight. O ye who believe! Guard your duty to Allah, and speak words straight to the point; He will adjust your works for you and will forgive you your sins. Whosoever obeyeth Allah and His messenger, he verily hath gained a signal victory.
Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And man assumed it. Lo! he hath proved a tyrant and a fool. So Allah punisheth hypocritical men and hypocritical women, and idolatrous men and idolatrous women. But Allah pardoneth believing men and believing women, and Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.”






Muhammad in Bible


[Muslims claim that Jesus predicted the coming of Prophet Muhammed. They say that "Holy Spirit" has many meanings; one of which can mean a prophet of God.
Dr. Bucaille examines the words of Jesus as contained in the Christian Gospels.]


The Paraclete of John's Gospel

By Dr. Maurice Bucaille (1976)

John is the only evangelist to report the episode of the last dialogue with the Apostles. It takes place at the end of the Last Supper and before Jesus's arrest. It ends in a very long speech: four chapters in John's Gospel (14 to 17) are devoted to this narration which is not mentioned anywhere in the other Gospels. These chapters of John nevertheless deal with questions of prime importance and fundamental significance to the future outlook. They are set out with all the grandeur and solemnity that characterizes the farewell scene between the Master and His disciples.

This very touching farewell scene which contains Jesus's spiritual testament, is entirely absent from Matthew, Mark and Luke. How can the absence of this description be explained? One might ask the following. did the text initially exist in the first three Gospels? Was it subsequently suppressed? Why? It must be stated immediately that no answer can be found; the mystery surrounding this huge gap in the narrations of the first three evangelists remains as obscure as ever.

The dominating feature of this narration-seen in the crowning speech-is the view of man's future that Jesus describes, His care in addressing His disciples, and through them the whole of humanity, His recommendations and commandments and His concern to specify the guide whom man must follow after His departure. The text of John's Gospel is the only one to designate him as Parakletos in Greek, which in English has become 'Paraclete'. The following are the essential passages:

"If you love me, you will keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Paraclete." (14, 15-16)

What does 'Paraclete' mean? The present text of John's Gospel explains its meaning as follows:

"But the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you" (14, 26).
"he will bear witness to me" (15, 26).

"it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Paraclete will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. And when he comes, he will convince the world of sin and of righteousness and of judgment..." (16, 7-8).

"When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. He will glorify me..." (16, 13-14).

(It must be noted that the passages in John, chapters 14-17, which have not been cited here, in no way alter the general meaning of these quotations).

On a cursory reading, the text which identifies the Greek word 'Paraclete' with the Holy Spirit is unlikely to attract much attention. This is especially true when the subtitles of the text are generally used for translations and the terminology commentators employ in works for mass publication direct the reader towards the meaning in these passages that an exemplary orthodoxy would like them to have. Should one have the slightest dimculty in comprehension, there are many explanations available, such as those given by A. Tricot in his Little Dictionary of the New Testament (Petit Dictionnaire du Nouveau Testament) to enlighten one on this subject. In his entry on the Paraclete this commentator writes the following:

"This name or title translated from the Greek is only used in the New Testament by John: he uses it four times in his account of Jesus's speech after the Last Supper [ In fact, for John it was during the Last Supper itself that Jesus delivered the long speech that mentions the Paraclete.] (14, 16 and 26; 15, 26; 16, 7) and once in his First Letter (2, 1).

In John's Gospel the word is applied to the Holy Spirit; in the Letter it refers to Christ.

'Paraclete' was a term in current usage among the Hellenist Jews, First century A.D., meaning 'intercessor', 'defender'... Jesus predicts that the Spirit will be sent by the Father and Son. Its mission will be to take the place of the Son in the role he played during his mortal life as a helper for the benefit of his disciples. The Spirit will intervene and act as a substitute for Christ, adopting the role of Paraclete or omnipotent intercessor."

This commentary therefore makes the Holy Spirit into the ultimate guide of man after Jesus's departure. How does it square with John's text?

It is a necessary question because a priori it seems strange to ascribe the last paragraph quoted above to the Holy Spirit: "for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come." It seems inconceivable that one could ascribe to the Holy Spirit the ability to speak and declare whatever he hears . . . Logic demands that this question be raised, but to my knowledge, it is not usually the subject of commentaries.

To gain an exact idea of the problem, one has to go back to the basic Greek text. This is especially important because John is universally recognized to have written in Greek instead of another language. The Greek text consulted was the Novum Testamentum Graece [ Nestlé and Aland. Pub. United Bibles Societies, London, 1971.].

Any serious textual criticism begins with a search for variations. Here it would seem that in all the known manuscripts of John's Gospel, the only variation likely to change the meaning of the sentence Is in passage 14, 26 of the famous Palimpsest version written in Syriac [ This manuscript was written in the Fourth or Fifth century A.D. It was discovered in 1812 on Mount Sinai by Agnes S.-Lewis and is so named because the first text had been covered by a later one which, when obliterated, revealed the original.]. Here it is not the Holy Spirit that is mentioned, but quite simply the Spirit. Did the scribe merely miss out a word or, knowing full well that the text he was to copy claimed to make the Holy Spirit hear and speak, did he perhaps lack the audacity to write something that seemed absurd to him? Apart from this observation there is little need to labour the other variations, they are grammatical and do not change the general meaning. The important thing is that what has been demonstrated here with regard to the exact meaning of the verbs 'to hear' and 'to speak' should apply to all the other manuscripts of John's Gospel, as is indeed the case.

The verb 'to hear, in the translation is the Greek verb 'akouô' meaning to perceive sounds. It has, for example, given us the word 'acoustics', the science of sounds.

The verb 'to speak' in the translation is the Greek verb 'laleô' which has the general meaning of 'to emit sounds' and the specific meaning of 'to speak'. This verb occurs very frequently in the Greek text of the Gospels. It designates a solemn declaration made by Jesus during His preachings. It therefore becomes clear that the communication to man which He here proclaims does not in any way consist of a statement inspired by the agency of the Holy Spirit. It has a very obvious material character moreover, which comes from the idea of the emission of sounds conveyed by the Greek word that defines it.

The two Greek verbs 'akouô' and 'laleô' therefore define concrete actions which can only be applied to a being with hearing and speech organs. It is consequently impossible to apply them to the Holy Spirit.

For this reason, the text of this passage from John's Gospel, as handed down to us in Greek manuscripts, is quite incomprehensible if one takes it as a whole, including the words 'Holy Spirit' in passage 14, 26. "But the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name" etc. It is the only passage in John's Gospel that identifies the Paraclete with the Holy Spirit.

If the words 'Holy Spirit' (to pneuma to agion) are ommitted from the passage, the complete text of John then conveys a meaning which is perfectly clear. It is confirmed moreover, by another text by the same evangelist, the First Letter, where John uses the same word 'Paraclete' simply to mean Jesus, the intercessor at God's side [ Many translations and commentaries of the Gospel, especially older ones, use the word 'Consoler' to translate this, but it is totally inaccurate.]. According to John, when Jesus says (14, 16): "And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Paraclete", what He is saying is that 'another' intercessor will be sent to man, as He Himself was at God's side on man's behalf during His earthly life.

According to the rules of logic therefore, one is brought to see in John's Paraclete a human being like Jesus, possessing the faculties of hearing and speech formally implied in John's Greek text. Jesus therefore predicts that God will later send a human being to Earth to take up the role defined by John, i.e. to be a prophet who hears God's word and repeats his message to man. This is the logical interpretation of John's texts arrived at if one attributes to the words their proper meaning.

The presence of the term 'Holy Spirit' in today's text could easily have come from a later addition made quite deliberately. It may have been intended to change the original meaning which predicted the advent of a prophet subsequent to Jesus and was therefore in contradiction with the teachings of the Christian churches at the time of their formation; these teachings maintained that Jesus was the last of the prophets.


People in Quran


# Female figures in the Quran

Female figures in the Quran are important characters and subjects of discussion in the stories and morals taught in Islam. Some of the women in the Quran are portrayed in a positive light, while others are condemned for their actions. Mary (Maryam) is the only female mentioned in the Quran by name; the others' names come from other traditions. Most of the women in the Quran are represented as either the mothers or wives of certain leaders and prophets. Women in the Quran retained an amount of autonomy from men in some respects; for example, the Quran describes women who converted to Islam before their husbands did, or women who took an independent oath of allegiance to Muhammad.[1]


1 Eve
2 Wives of Noah and Lot
3 Daughters of Lot
4 Sara (سارة), Wife of Abraham
5 Aziz's Wife and the Ladies
6 Mother and sister of Moses
7 Wife of Moses
8 Asiyah, Wife of the Pharaoh
9 The Queen of Sheba (Bilqis)
10 Wife of Imran
11 Maryam (مريم)
12 Wives Of Muhammad
13 Daughters of Muhammad
14 The woman who complained to Muhammad
15 Wife of Abu Lahab "Umm Jamil bint Harb"


Eve is not mentioned by name in the Quran. God created Adam and Eve and bestowed them a place to live in namely Paradise. The first human mistake was by Adam and Eve who both ate a fruit forbidden to them by God:

"So We said: O Adam! This is an enemy to you and to your wife; therefore let him not drive you both forth from the garden so that you should be unhappy; "

Quran, Sura 20 (Ta-Ha), ayat 117[2]

Wives of Noah and Lot

The Quran speaks of the wives of Noah (Arabic:Nuh) and Lot (Arabic:Lut) in contempt:
"God sets forth an example to those who disbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot, they were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against God, and it was said: Enter both the fire with those who enter."
— Quran, Sura 66 (At-Tahrim), ayat 10[3]

Daughters of Lot

The Quran speaks of them in suras 11 (Hud) and 15 (Al-Hijr):
And his people came rushing towards him and they had been long in the habit of practising abominations. He said: "O my people! Here are my daughters: they are purer for you (if ye marry). Now fear God and cover me not with shame about my guests! Is there not among you a single right-minded man?" They said: "Well dost thou know we have no need of thy daughters: indeed thou knowest quite well what we want!"
—Quran, Sura 11 (Hud), ayat 79[4]

Sara (سارة), Wife of Abraham

Sara, the wife of the Prophet Abraham, is also mentioned in the Quran; where it recounts how she was astonished by the news received by her two children despite of her old age:
And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed. But We gave her glad tidings of Ishâq (Isaac), and after Ishâq, of Ya'qûb (Jacob). (71) She said (in astonishment): "Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband, an old man? Verily! This is a strange thing!"
— Quran, Sura 11 (Hud), ayat 71-72[5]

Aziz's Wife and the Ladies

The story of Yusuf and the wife of the 'Aziz is also recounted in the Quran.
But she in whose house he was, sought to seduce him from his (true) self: she fastened the doors, and said: "Now come, thou (dear one)!" He said: "God forbid! Truly (thy husband) is my lord! He made my sojourn agreeable! Truly to no good come those who do wrong!"
—Quran, Sura 12 (Yusuf), ayat 23[6]
"When she heard of their malicious talk, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them: she gave each of them a knife: and she said (to Joseph), "Come out before them." When they saw him, they did extol him, and (in their amazement) cut their hands: they said, "God preserve us! No mortal is this! This is none other than a noble angel!"
— Quran, Sura 12 (Yusuf), ayat 31[7]
"The king said (to the ladies): "What was your affair when ye did seek to seduce Joseph from his (true) self?" The ladies said: "God preserve us! No evil know we against him!" Said the 'Aziz's wife: "Now is the truth manifest (to all): it was I who sought to seduce him from his (true) self: He is indeed of those who are (ever) true (and virtuous)."
— Quran, Sura 12 (Yusuf), ayat 51[8]

Mother and sister of Moses

The Quran narrates that Mūsā is watched by his sister, refuses the milk of other nurses and is suckled by his own mother.[9]
"And We revealed to Musa's mother, saying: "Give him suck, then when you fear for him, cast him into the river and do not fear nor grieve; surely We will bring him back to you and make him one of the apostles." And the heart of Musa's mother was empty she would have almost disclosed it had We not strengthened her heart so that she might be of the believers. And she said to his sister: "Follow him up. So she watched him from a distance while they did not perceive."
— Quran, Sura 28 (Al-Qasas), ayat 7-11[10]

Wife of Moses

"And when he arrived at the watering (place) in Madyan, he found there a group of men watering (their flocks), and besides them he found two women who were keeping back (their flocks). He said: "What is the matter with you?" They said: "We cannot water (our flocks) until the shepherds take back (their flocks): And our father is a very old man. So he watered (their flocks) for them; then he turned back to the shade, and said: "O my Lord! truly am I in (desperate) need of any good that Thou dost send me! Afterwards one of the (damsels) came (back) to him, walking bashfully. She said: "My father invites thee that he may reward thee for having watered (our flocks) for us." So when he came to him and narrated the story, he said: "Fear thou not: (well) hast thou escaped from unjust people. Said one of the (damsels): "O my (dear) father! engage him on wages: truly the best of men for thee to employ is the (man) who is strong and trusty. He said: "I intend to wed one of these my daughters to thee, on condition that thou serve me for eight years; but if thou complete ten years, it will be (grace) from thee. But I intend not to place thee under a difficulty: thou wilt find me, indeed, if God wills, one of the righteous."
— Quran, Sura 28 (Al-Qasas), ayat 23-27[11]

Asiyah, Wife of the Pharaoh

The wife of the Pharaoh, known in some traditions as Asiyah, is mentioned in the Quran:
"And Allâh has set forth an example for those who believe; the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh), when she said: "My Lord! Build for me a home with You in Paradise, and save me from Fir'aun (Pharaoh) and his work, and save me from the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers and disbelievers in Allâh)."
— Quran, Sura 66 (At-Tahrim), ayat 11[12]

The Queen of Sheba (Bilqis)

The Quran speaks of the Queen of Sheba, also known as Balqees:
"I found (there) a woman ruling over them and provided with every requisite; and she has a magnificent throne. [Quran 27:23]
"I found her and her people worshipping the sun besides God: Satan has made their deeds seem pleasing in their eyes, and has kept them away from the Path,- so they receive no guidance,- [Quran 27:24]
She said: "Kings, when they enter a country, despoil it, and make the noblest of its people its meanest thus do they behave. [Quran 27:34]
"But I am going to send him a present, and (wait) to see with what (answer) return (my) ambassadors." [Quran 27:35]
So when she arrived, she was asked, "Is this thy throne?" She said, "It was just like this; and knowledge was bestowed on us in advance of this, and we have submitted to God (in Islam)." [Quran 27:42]
She was asked to enter the lofty Palace: but when she saw it, she thought it was a lake of water, and she (tucked up her skirts), uncovering her legs. He said: "This is but a palace paved smooth with slabs of glass." She said: "O my Lord! I have indeed wronged my soul: I do (now) submit (in Islam), with Solomon, to the Lord of the Worlds." [Quran 27:44]

Wife of Imran

The wife of Imran (father of Mary), and thus Isa's grandmother is not named in the Quran, but referred to in narratives. In Judeo-Christian tradition she is identifeid as Hannah. According to the Quran, Imran and his wife were old and childless, and she invoked God for a child:[13]
"How the wife of ʿImrān said, O my Lord, I have vowed to thee what is in my womb. Now accept [this vow] from me, thou art the hearing, the knowing. And when she had given birth to the child, she said, O my Lord, I have given birth to a female child... and I have called her Maryam".
— Quran, Sura 3 (Ali Imran), ayat 31[14]
"Behold! a wife of Imran said: "O my Lord! I do dedicate into Thee what is in my womb for Thy special service: So accept this of me: For Thou hearest and knowest all things." "When she was delivered, she said: "O my Lord! Behold! I am delivered of a female child!"- and God knew best what she brought forth- "And whatever no wise is the male like the female. I have named her Mary, and I commend her and her offspring to Thy protection from Satan, the Rejected."
— Quran, Sura 3 (Ali Imran), ayat 35-36[15]

Maryam (مريم)

A key female character in the Quran is Mary, the mother of Jesus. The name of Maryam frequently appears in the Qur'an alongside that of Isa (Jesus) in the format "Īsā Ibn Maryam" (meaning Jesus the son of Mary).[16] surah 19 is named after her:

“ When she was delivered, she said: "O my Lord! Behold! I am delivered of a female child!" - and God knew best what she brought forth - "And not wise is the male like the female. I have named her Mary, and I commend her and her offspring to Thy protection from the Evil One, the Rejected." [Quran 3:36] ”

God sent Gabriel to Mary to give her tidings of a son:

“ Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! God giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to God; [Quran 3:45] ”

The Qur'an also states that the conception of Jesus by Mary was miraculous:

“ She said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?" He said: "Even so: God createth what He willeth: When He hath decreed a plan, He but saith to it, 'Be,' and it is!"' [Quran 3:47]
"Mary the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity; and We breathed into (her body) of Our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His Revelations, and was one of the devout (servants)." [Quran 66:12]

Mary is especially revered by many Muslims, and she is praised much by the Quran:

“ "Behold! the angels said: 'O Mary! God hath chosen thee and purified thee - chosen thee above the women of all nations.'" [Quran 3:42]
And Maryam, the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our inspiration and she accepted the truth of the words of her Lord and His books, and she was of, the obedient ones. [Quran 66:12]

Wives Of Muhammad

The wives of Muhammad are known to Muslims as the "Mother of the believers", or in Arabic, "umm'ul mu'mineen', and they are mentioned in several places, but never by name.
"The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers."

—Quran, Sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 6[17]

'O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to God), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery, etc.) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner."

—Quran, Sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 32[18]
Daughters of Muhammad
The Quran speaks of their in surah 33 ver. 59
"O Prophet! tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad): that is most convenient, that they should be known (as such) and not molested. And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."

— Quran, Sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 59[19]
The woman who complained to Muhammad
The Quran speaks of her in surah 58 (Al-Mujadila), her name being Khoulah bint Thalabah.
"God has indeed heard (and accepted) the statement of the woman who pleads with thee concerning her husband and carries her complaint (in prayer) to God: and God (always) hears the arguments between both of you: for God hears and sees (all things)."

— Quran, Sura 58 (Al-Mujadila), ayat 1[20]
The verses that follow are to restore her rights (as well as those of any other woman in her position), when the husband does a specific pre-Islamic tradition.
Wife of Abu Lahab "Umm Jamil bint Harb"
The Quran mentions wife of Abu Lahab in Sura Al-Masadd (Sura 111), where it mentions how she will be punished in Hell for hurting Muhammad alongside her husband, Abu Lahab.
"His wife shall carry The (crackling) wood as fuel. A twisted rope of palm-leaf fibre Round her (own) neck."

—Quran, Sura 111 (Al-Masadd), ayat 4-5[21]


1.      "Women and Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online" 2008 .
2.      Quran 20:117
3.      Quran 66:10
4.      Quran 11:79
5.      Quran 11:71–72
6.      Quran 12:23
7.      Quran 12:31
8.      Quran 12:51
9.      "Musa", Encyclopaedia of Islam
10.  Quran 28:7–11
11.  Quran 66:23–27
12.  Quran 66:11
13.  "Maryam", Encyclopaedia of Islam
14.  Quran 3:31
15.  Quran 3:35–36
16.  "Maryam", Encyclopaedia of Islam
17.  Quran 33:6
18.  Quran 33:32
19.  Quran 33:59
20.  Quran 58:1
21.  Quran 111:4–5


# Apostle (Islam)

Messengers of Islam

In Islam, an Apostle or Messenger (Arabic: rasūl ) is a prophet sent by God.
According to the Quran, God sent many prophets to mankind. The five universally acknowledged messengers in Islam are Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and Muhammad[1], as each is believed to have been sent with a scripture.[2] Muslim tradition also maintains that Adam received scrolls as did some of the other patriarchs of the Generations of Adam.[3]
The term Apostle or Messenger is also applied to prophets sent to preach to specific areas; the Quran mentions Jonah[4], Elijah[5], Ishmael[6] and Shoaib[7] and other prophets as being messengers as well. This meaning is also used for the following figures:

Jonah, who is regarded as the Apostle to Nineveh
Hud, who is regarded as the Apostle to Ād
Shoaib, who is regarded as the Apostle to Midian
Noah, who is regarded as the Apostle to the People of Noah
Salih, who is regarded as the Apostle to Thamud
Elijah, who is regarded as the Apostle to the Baal-Worshipers
Lot, who is regarded as the Apostle to Sodom and Gomorrah


1.      Concise Enyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Messenger
2.      Muslims believe Abraham received the Scrolls of Abraham, Moses received the Torah, David received the Psalms, Jesus the Gospel and Muhammad received the Quran
3.      A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B.M. Wheeler, Apostle
4.      Quran 37:139
5.      Quran 37:123
6.      Quran 19:54
7.      Quran 7:85


# Prophets and messengers in Islam

In Islam, the terms prophet (Arabic: Nabi; Greek: prophētēs; Hebrew: nâbîy) and messenger (Arabic: Rasul; Greek: ä'n-ge-los; Hebrew: mal•äk) are two frequently used words to describe the numerous divinely inspired men who conveyed God's message to mankind throughout history. These men include early patriarchs such as Noah[1] and Abraham[2], as well as later figures such as Moses[3] and Aaron[4], right through to the most recent prophets, namely John the Baptist[5], Jesus[6] and Muhammad. But the actual differences between a prophet and a messenger/apostle has continued to rouse debate amongst Muslim scholars, with different people interpreting the phrases differently. Most commonly, however, the two terms are used interchangeably by Muslims as well as Non-Muslims.
One of the most common views held by scholars is that messengers were recipients of a scripture while prophets simply taught teachings already established through a scripture. Therefore, people of this view believe, for example, that David was a messenger and a prophet as he received the Psalms[7]; his son, Solomon, however, was a prophet[8] but not a messenger as he did not receive any named scripture. The conclusion that scholars of this view come to is that every messenger was a prophet but not every prophet was a messenger. This view, therefore, states that the following prophets were messengers too:

Abraham, as he received the Scrolls of Abraham[9]
Moses, as he received the Torah[10]
David, as he received the Psalms[11]
Jesus, as he received the Gospel[12]
Muhammad, as he received the Quran
Other prophets, of whose books we don't know (may include Jacob, Ishmael, Jonah and others[13])

In the Quran

Although many scholars adopt classical views and interpretations, the Quran speaks of prophets and messengers as having the following characteristics:

Prophets are recipients of a scripture or a book:
Mankind was one community, and God sent (unto them) prophets as bearers of good tidings and as warners, and revealed therewith the Scripture with the truth that it might judge between mankind concerning that wherein they differed. And only those unto whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred one of another. And God by His Will guided those who believe unto the truth of that concerning which they differed. Allah guideth whom He will unto a straight path.
—Quran, sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayat 213[14]
Those to whom We have given the Book, and the law, and the prophethood, if they reject it, then We will entrust it to a people who will not reject it.
—Quran, sura 6 (Al-An'am), ayat 89[15]
More than one prophet can exist at a time:
Also mention in the Book (the story of) Moses: for he was specially chosen, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet.
And we called him from the right side of Mount (Sinai), and made him draw near to Us, for mystic (converse).
And, out of Our Mercy, We gave him his brother Aaron, (also) a prophet.
—Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), ayat 51-53[16]
Prophets can be given an existing scripture or book, or even share a book:
It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (in Islam) to God's will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of God's book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear Me, and sell not My signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what God hath revealed, they are (no better than) unbelievers.
—Quran, sura 5 (Al-Ma'ida), ayat 44[17]
Prophets are witnesses, bearers of good news and warners to mankind:
O Prophet! Truly We have sent thee as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, and warner.
—Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 45[18]
The gift of prophecy was placed within some families:
And We gave him (Abraham) Isaac and Jacob, and ordained among his progeny prophethood and revelation, and We granted him his reward in this life; and he was in the hereafter (of the company) of the righteous.
—Quran, sura 29 (Al-Ankabut), ayat 27[19]
And We sent Noah and Abraham, and established in their line prophethood and revelation: and some of them were on right guidance. But many of them became rebellious transgressors.
—Quran, sura 57 (Al-Hadid), ayat 26[20]
Prophets could make minor mistakes:
O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which God has made lawful to thee? Thou seekest to please thy consorts. But God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
—Quran, sura 66 (At-Tahrim), ayat 1[21]
And David and Solomon, when they gave judgment concerning the field, when people's sheep had strayed and browsed therein by night; and We were witnesses to their judgment.
To Solomon We inspired the (right) understanding of the matter: to each (of them) We gave judgment and knowledge; it was Our power that made the hills and the birds celebrate Our praises, with David: it was We who did (all these things).
—Quran, sura 21(Al-Anbiya), ayat 78-79[22]
Prophets will be given blessings of peace on the Day of Judgement:
So peace on him (John) the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!
—Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), ayat 15[23]
Some of the prophets were slain by their people:
As to those who deny the signs of God and in defiance of right, slay the prophets, and slay those who teach just dealing with mankind, announce to them a grievous penalty.
—Quran, sura 3 (Al-Imran), ayat 21[24]
Messengers were sent to every nation:
To every people (was sent) a messenger: when their messenger comes (before them), the matter will be judged between them with justice, and they will not be wronged.
—Quran, sura 10 (Yunus), ayat 47[25]
Messengers were also usually sent with a scripture or book:
And if they reject thee, so did their predecessors, to whom came their messengers with clear signs, Books of Dark Prophecies, and the Book of Enlightenment.
—Quran, sura 35 (Fatir), ayat 25[26]
Messengers taught in the language of their own people:
We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them. Now God leaves straying those whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases: and He is exalted in power, full of wisdom.
—Quran, sura 14 (Ibrahim), ayat 4[27]
'Messengers' may refer to an angel:
(The Messengers) said: "O Lot! We are Messengers from thy Lord! By no means shall they reach thee! now travel with thy family while yet a part of the night remains, and let not any of you look back: but thy wife (will remain behind): To her will happen what happens to the people. Morning is their time appointed: Is not the morning nigh?"
—Quran, sura 11 (Hud), ayat 81[28]
Many messengers are not named in the Quran:
And messengers We have mentioned unto thee before and messengers We have not mentioned unto thee; and God spoke directly unto Moses;
—Quran, sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayat 164[29]
Conclusion through the Quran
Although scholars hold different views, the most common conclusion that scholars come to, when analyzing the words purely through their occurrence in the Quran, is that 'messenger' and 'prophet' are indeed interchangeable words for each other[30]. The only major difference is that the term 'messenger' is also used for angels, while 'prophet' is used specifically for humans. Therefore, some translators use the alternative phrase, 'apostle', when translating the word 'Rasul' in the context of a human[31].


1.      Quran 6:89
2.      Quran 6:89
3.      Quran 6:89
4.      Quran 6:89
5.      Quran 6:89
6.      Quran 6:89
7.      Quran 17:55
8.      Quran 6:89
9.      Quran 87:19
10.  Quran 53:36
11.  Quran 17:55
12.  Quran 57:27
13.  Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, Prophets
14.  Quran 2:213
15.  Quran 6:89
16.  Quran 19:51–53
17.  Quran 5:44
18.  Quran 33:45
19.  Quran 29:27
20.  Quran 57:26
21.  Quran 66:1
22.  Quran 21:78–79
23.  Quran 19:15
24.  Quran 3:21
25.  Quran 10:47
26.  Quran 35:25
27.  Quran 14:4
28.  Quran 11:81
29.  Quran 4:164
30.  Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Index: Prophet
31.  Ahmed Ali, Quran: A Contemporary Translation


# Prophets in the Quran

The following are named as Prophets in the Quran


1 Adam آدم
2 Idris إدريس
3 Noah نوح
4 Hud هود
5 Saleh صالح
6 Abraham ابراهيم
7 Lut لوط
8 Ismail اسماعيل
9 Isaac اسحاق
10 Yaqub (Jacob) يعقوب
11 Yusuf (Joseph) يوسف
12 Ayyub (Job) أيوب
13 Shoaib (Jethro) شعيب
14 Musa (Moses) موسى
15 Harun (Aaron) هارون
16 Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel) ذو الكفل
17 Daud (David) داود
18 Sulayman (Solomon) سليمان
19 Ilyas (Elijah) إلياس
20 Al-Yasa (Elisha) اليسع
21 Yunus (Jonah) يونس
22 Zakariya (Zechariah) زكريا
23 Yahya (John the Baptist) يحيى
24 Isa (Jesus) عيسى
25 Muhammad

Adam آدم
Adam is the first prophet of Islam and, according to Islamic tradition, the first human being. He is an important figure in Judaism and Christianity as well and is best known for the story of Adam and Eve.
Idris إدريس
Prophet Idris is, at times, identified with the Enoch found in the Bible. In the Quran, it says that God exalted Idris to a lofty station and Muslims believe that he lived at a time when pure monotheism was, for the most part, forgotten. He is known to be the first prophet to wage a Jihad war.
Noah نوح
Although best known for the Deluge, Nuh was a primary preacher of monotheism at his time. According to Islamic tradition, it was this faithfulness to God that led to him being selected to build the Ark
Hud هود
According to Islam, Hud, for whom the eleventh chapter of the Quran is named, was sent by God some time after the Deluge to remind the people of his nation about God. He was sent to the people of Ad, and is one of the five Arab prophets.
Saleh صالح
According to the Quran, Saleh was ordered by God to leave behind his people after they disobeyed God's orders. They were the nation of Thamud and they were known to have carved buildings and homes out of cliffs and mountains.
Abraham ابراهيم
Abraham is regarded by Muslims today as one of the significant prophets as he is credited with building the Kaaba in Makkah. His family included his prophetic sons Ismail and Isaac as well as his prophetic grandson Jacob and the holy women Sarah and Hagar.
Lut لوط
Lut is known in Islam for preaching against homosexuality in Sodom and Gomorrah, only to be mocked and ignored by the people who lived there. This nation was destroyed By God's command.
Ismail اسماعيل
According to Islamic tradition Ismail and his mother Hajra's search for water in the region around Makkah led God to reveal the Zamzam Well.
Isaac اسحاق
According to Islamic tradition, Isaac, second-born son of Abraham, became a prophet in Canaan. He, along with his brother Ismail, carried on the legacy of Ibrahim as prophets of Islam.
Yaqub (Jacob) يعقوب
Jacob, according to the Quran was "of the company of the Elect and the Good" (Yusuf Ali 38:47) and he continued the legacy of both his father, Isaac, and his grandfather, Abraham. Like his ancestors, he was committed to worshipping and bowing to God.
Yusuf (Joseph) يوسف
Yusuf, son of Yaqub and great-grandson of Ibrahim, became a prominent advisor to the pharaoh of Egypt since he was believed to have been able to predict the future through dream interpretation. He spent a large part of his life away from his eleven brothers, who, jealous of Yusuf's success, told their father Yaqub that Yusuf had died. But indeed they had thrown him in a well and took off his shirt and smeared it with that of a killed ram's blood. Yusuf a.s. was afraid in the well but knew very well that Allah was with him. Yusuf was a prophet as well as the messenger of Allah (God)
Ayyub (Job) أيوب
According to Islamic tradition, Ayub was rewarded by a fountain of youth, which removed all illnesses except death, for his service to Allah in his hometown outside Al Majdal.
Shoaib (Jethro) شعيب
Shoaib was a direct descendant of Ibrahim. According to Islam, he was appointed by Allah to guide the people of Madyan and Aykah, who lived near Mount Sinai. When the people of the region failed to listen to his warnings, their villages were destroyed by Allah.
Musa (Moses) موسى
Musa, referred to in the Quran more than any other prophet, is significant for revealing the Tawrat to the ancient Egyptians. The Quran says Musa realized his connection with Allah after receiving commands from him during a stop at Mount Sinai. He later went on to free the enslaved Israelites after failing to convince the Egyptian pharaoh of Allah's power. Musa subsequently led the freed Israelites for forty years through the desert on a long attempt to capture Canaan, the promised land. During this long journey, Musa received the Tawrat and the Ten Commandments during another trip to Mount Sinai. At the end of his life, according to Islamic tradition, Musa chose to die to be closer to Allah instead of taking an offer that would have extended his life.
Harun (Aaron) هارون
Harun served as an assistant to his elder brother Musa. In Islam, he, like Musa, was given the task of saving the Israelites from the Egyptian pharaoh. He would often speak for Musa when his speech impediment prevented him from doing so himself.
Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel) ذو الكفل
Dhul-Kifl was stated twice in the Quran (Surah Al-Anbiya ayat 85 and Surah Sa'd ayat 48). Both references describe that Dhul-Kifl was amongst the most patient and righteous of men. He is most often identified with the Old Testament prophet Ezekiel because Ezekiel in his journey to Nineveh went to a little town called Kefil and his shrine is there. So, people believe Ezekiel as Dhul-Kifl.
Daud (David) داود
In Islam, the Zabur (equated by some with the Psalms) were revealed to Daud by Allah. He is also significant as he is the one who conquered Goliath. Zabur the short book given by Allah in order to him.
Sulayman (Solomon) سليمان
Sulayman learned a significant amount from his father Daud before being made a prophet by Allah. According to Islamic tradition, Sulayman was given power over all things, including the jinns. Known for his honesty and fairness, he also led a kingdom that extended into southern Arabia. He was the youngest among his nineteen brothers, he was thirteen years old when he became a prophet. He inherited his fathers throne because he made fair decisions. He had the ability to control winds also and speak to animals.
Ilyas (Elijah) إلياس
Ilyas, descendant of Harun, took over control of the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula after Sulayman's kingdom collapsed. Islamic tradition says he attempted to convince the people of the Peninsula of the existence of only one god, but when the people refused to listen they were smitten with a drought and famine.
Al-Yasa (Elisha) اليسع
Al-Yasa took over the job of leading the Israelites after Ilyas' death. He attempted to show the king and queen of Israel the powers of Allah, but was dismissed as a magician. Subsequently, the Assyrians were able to conquer the Israelites and inflict significant damage on them.
Yunus (Jonah) يونس
Yunus was commanded by Allah to help the people of Nineveh towards righteousness. However, after Nineveh's people refused to listen to him, he became disgruntled and started to ignore him. After an incident where Yunus was spared death, he decided to re-commit himself to striving for Allah, attempting to lead the people of Nineveh to righteousness. But after returning to evil, illicit ways, the Scythians conquered them.[1]
Zakariya (Zechariah) زكريا
A descendant of Sulayman, Zakariya was a patron of Maryam, mother of Isa. According to Islamic tradition, he prayed to Allah asking for a son, since his sterile wife al-Yashbi could not provide one. Allah granted his wishes, temporarily lifting his wife's sterility and allowing her to give birth to Yahya. His death was considered tragic as several Israelites severed his body in half.[2]
Yahya (John the Baptist) يحيى
Islam says that, like his father Zakariya, Yahya prayed to Allah to bless him with a son who could continue his legacy of guiding people towards Islam. Throughout his lifetime, Yahya captivated audiences with his powerful sermons that preached monotheism.
Isa (Jesus) عيسى
One of the highest ranked prophets in Islam, Isa was sent to guide the Children of Israel. The Quran makes it very clear that Isa is not the son of God as Christianity teaches, but rather a prophet, and Messenger of God. He was able to perform many miracles but only by the will of God. It also states that he received the New Testament although the version seen today is different from the one revealed at the time. Muslims believe that Isa was not crucified on the cross but instead is in heaven, waiting to return to defeat the dajjal. In Sura Maryam (19:88-89), The Quran states, "And they say: Allah the most gracious has begotten a son. Indeed, you have made a abominable assertion." This is such an unjust and grave claim that "At it the skies are about to burst, and the earth split asunder, and the mountains to crumble down crashing, that they have attributed to the Most Gracious a son! It is not befitting for the Most Gracious to beget a son. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes to the Most Gracious as a slave" 19:90-93. The claim of those who attribute such fallacy to Him is refuted in these verses.
Muhammad محمد
Muhammed ibn Abdullah(53 B.H-11 A.H; 571-632 AD) is the Last Prophet in Islam. According to Islamic tradition Muhammad never claimed Islam a new religion but in fact preached the unity of the religion since Adam the first person and prophet of Allah on the face of earth. The strongest Islamic belief is that Islam is the only religion which all prophets preached. Also Quran refers to all prophets as Muslims. Muhammad was born in Makkah where he spent the first part of his life as a well-travelled merchant. He would often spend his time in the mountains surrounding Makkah in prayer contemplating the situation with the city. According to Islamic beliefs, at the age of forty during one of those trips to the mountain, Muhammad began to, despite his illiteracy, receive and recite verses from Allah which today make up the Quran. He quickly began to spread the message he was receiving, convincing a few others in the city, including his wife, to convert a form of Islam similar to one practiced today. He became the leader of those who had submitted to Allah (Muslims), moving to another city (present-day Medina) away from the oppressors in Makkah. Muhammad served not just as a prophet, but as a king/leader who helped defeat the Makkans in 624 during the Battle of Badr. He continued to lead the Muslims spreading Islam across the Arabian Peninsula. He performed the first hajj in 629 and established the form of Islam, with its five pillars still practiced by Muslims today. Others continued Muhammad's legacy after his death in 629 proclaiming themselves as caliphs (or successors) to Muhammad.


# Prophets in Islam

Muslims identify the prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God in Islam (Allah) and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well.[1] Each prophet, in Muslim belief, preached the same main belief of worshiping God (which in Arabic is translated as Allah) and in the avoidance of idolatry and sin. Each came to preach Islam at different times in history and some, including Jesus, told of the coming of the final prophet and messenger of God, who would be named Muhammad. Each prophet directed a message to a different group of people, and thus would preach Islam in accordance with the times. Although many lay Muslims and many Western scholars and writers hold the view that Islam began with Muhammad in Mecca, this contradicts the Quran, which says that Muhammad simply was the last prophet who preached the same faith that Adam preached to his children.
Islamic tradition holds that God sent messengers to every nation.[2] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad to transmit the message of the Quran, the holy book which, according to Islam, is universal in its message. The reason the Muslims believe the Quran is universal and will remain uncorrupted is because they believe that previous Islamic holy books, namely the Torah given to Moses; the Psalms given to David; and the Gospel given to Jesus, were for a particular time and community and because they believe that, even if the books were corrupted, many prophets were still to come who could tell the people of what was correct in the scripture and warn them of corruptions. Muhammad therefore, being the last prophet, was vouchsafed a book which, in Muslim belief, will remain in its true form till the Last Day.
In both Arabic and Hebrew,[3] the term nabī (plural forms: nabiyyūn and anbiyāʾ) means "prophet". Forms of this noun occur 75 times in the Quran. The term nubuwwah (meaning "prophethood") occurs five times in the Quran. The terms rasūl (plural: rusul) and mursal (plural: mursalūn) denote “messenger” or "apostle" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic “message”, risāla (plural: risālāt) appears in the Quran in ten instances.[4]
The Syriac form of rasūl Allāh (literally: "messenger of God"), s̲h̲elieh d-allāhā, occurs frequently in the apocryphal Acts of St. Thomas. The corresponding verb for s̲h̲elieh — s̲h̲ala, occurs in connection with the prophets in the Old Testament.[5][6][7][8]
The words "prophet" (Arabic: nabī) and "messenger" (Arabic: rasūl, ) appear several times in the Old Testament and the New Testament.
The following table shows these words in different languages:[9]
In the Old Testament the word "prophet" (Hebrew: navi) occurs more commonly, and the word "messenger" (Hebrew: mal'akh) refers to angels (Arabic: Malāīkah), But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that Christian commentators interpret as a reference to the future prophet John the Baptist.[10]
In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a prophet.[11]
"Messenger" can refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist.
It seems that in the New Testament a messenger can have a higher rank than prophets: Jesus Christ said about John the Baptist:
But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.
For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.
—Matthew, Gospel of Matthew[12]

Prophets and messengers in Islam

The table below [omitted] charts the twenty-five named Quran prophets, and reference key elements of their role in Islam. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran itself refers to at least four other prophets but does not name them.[13][14]

Distinguishing between prophets and messengers

All messengers are commonly considered to be prophets. However not all prophets are considered as messengers.[69] The Quran, like the quoted passage from the New Testament, may rank a messenger higher than a prophet. For example, whenever both titles appear together, "messenger" comes first. Crucially, a messenger delivers a new religious law (Sharia) revealed by God, whereas a prophet continues an old one. God sends both prophets and messengers as givers of good news and as admonishers of their people. A messenger will become the witness that God will take from that community on the Day of Judgment (see the following sura; Yunus;[70] An-Nahl;[71] Al-Mu’minoon;[72] Ghafir;[73] An-Nisa;[74] Al-Qasas[75]).
Scholars like Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and Amin Ahsan Islahi maintain that the key difference between prophets and messengers is that denial of a messenger invites punishment from God - this is termed as sunnat Allah (one of the ways of God in the Quran). Thus, for example, denial of Noah's invitation by his people, caused the flood to come upon them. This is an extension of the view above that messengers become witnesses to the delivery of the Divine message to their respective nations, and their nations are judged accordingly by God.[76]
Muslims distinguish between celestial and human messengers. In the Quranic world, God calls the angels 'messengers' but not prophets. The human messengers, however, also function as prophets — though not every prophet serves as a messenger. Angels always carry "orders" to the human prophets or messengers on what to say, what to do, and so forth. For example, Gabriel - the angel - delivered the Quran to Muhammad, the prophet and the messenger.

Prophethood in Ahmadiyya Islam

Unlike the majority of Muslims, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community does not recognize any difference between a messenger and a prophet. Ahmadiyya belief regards the terms encountered in the Quran to signify divinely appointed individuals - "warner" (nazir), "prophet", "messenger" - as generally synonymous. Ahmadis however categorise prophets as law-bearing ones and non-lawbearing ones. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community also recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) as a Prophet of God, and also sees him as the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi of the latter days and view it[77].

General Information

Status in Islam
The Quran speaks of the prophets as being the greatest human beings of all time.[78] A prophet, in the Muslim sense of the term, is a person whom God specially chose to teach the faith of Islam.[78] Before man was created, God had specifically selected those men whom He would use as prophets. This does not, however, mean that every prophet began to prophesy from his birth. Some were called to prophesy late in life, in Muhammad's case at the age of 40 and in Noah's case at 480[79] Others, such as John the Baptist, was called to prophesy while still in young age and Jesus prophesied while still in his cradle.[80]
The Quran verse 4:69 lists various virtuous groups of human beings, among whom prophets (including messengers) occupy the highest rank. Verse 4:69 reads:[4]
All who obey Allah and the messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah - of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! what a beautiful fellowship!
—Quran, sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayah 69[81]
Religion of preaching
In Muslim belief, every prophet preached Islam. The beliefs of charity, prayer, pilgrimage, worship of God and fasting are believed to have been taught by every prophet who has ever lived.[78] The Quran itself calls Islam the 'religion of Abraham'[82] and refers to Jacob and the Twelve Tribes of Israel as being Muslim.[83] Isaac, Ishmael, Jesus, Noah, Moses and the disciples of Jesus are just some of the other figures referred to as Muslims in the Quran.[84] The Quran says:
“The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah - the which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein.”

—Quran, sura 42 (Ash-Shura), ayah 13[85]
Scriptures and other gifts
Holy books
The Revealed Books are the records which Muslims believe were dictated by God to various Islamic prophets throughout the history of mankind. All these books promulgated the code and laws of Islam. The belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam and Muslim's must believe in all the scriptures to be a Muslim. Muslims believe the Quran, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost.[86] Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, even in their current forms.[87] The Quran mentions some Islamic scriptures by name, which came before the Quran:
Tawrat (Torah): According to the Quran, the Tawrat (Torah) was revealed to Moses,[47] but Muslims believe that the current Pentateuch, although it retains the main message,[88] has suffered corruption over the years. Moses and his brother Aaron used the Torah to preach the message to the Children of Israel. The Quran implies that the Torah is the longest-used scripture, with the Jewish people still using the Torah today, and that all the Hebrew prophets would warn the people of any corruptions that were in the scripture.[89] Jesus, in Muslim belief, was the last prophet to be taught the Mosaic Law in its true form.
Zabur (Psalms): The Quran mentions the Psalms as being the holy scripture revealed to David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise.[90] The current Psalms are still praised by many Muslim scholars,[91] but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms were written later and are not divinely revealed.
Book of Enlightenment: The Quran mentions a Book of Enlightenment,[92] which has alternatively been translated as Scripture of Enlightenment or the Illuminating Book. It mentions that some prophets, in the past, came with clear signs from God as well as this particular scripture.
Books of Divine Wisdom: The Quran mentions certain Books of Divine Wisdom,[93] translated by some scholars as Books of Dark Prophecies, which are a reference to particular books vouchsafed to some prophets, wherein there was wisdom for man. Some scholars have suggested that these may be one and the same as the Psalms as their root Arabic word, Zubur, comes from the same source as the Arabic Zabur for the Psalms.
İnjil (Gospel): The İnjil (Gospel) was the holy book revealed to Jesus, according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the Injil refers to the entire New Testament, scholars have clearly pointed out that it refers not to the New Testament but to an original Gospel, written by God, which was given to Jesus.[94] Therefore, according to Muslim belief, the Gospel was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels contain portions of Jesus's teachings but don't represent the original Gospel, which was a single book written not by a human but by God.[95]
Scrolls of Abraham: The Scrolls of Abraham are believed to have been one of the earliest bodies of scripture, which were vouchsafed to Abraham,[32] and later used by Ishmael and Isaac. Although usually referred to as 'scrolls', many translators have translated the Arabic Suhuf as 'Books'.[96] The Scrolls of Abraham are now considered lost rather than corrupted, although some scholars have identified them with the Testament of Abraham, an apocalyptic piece of literature available in Arabic at the time of Muhammad.
Scrolls of Moses: These scrolls, containing the revelations of Moses, which were perhaps written down later by Moses, Aaron and Joshua, are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah but to revelations aside from the Torah. Some scholars have stated that they could possibly refer to the Book of the Wars of the Lord,[97] a lost text spoken of in the Hebrew Bible.[98]
Holy gifts
The Quran mentions various divinely-bestowed gifts given to various prophets. These may be interpreted as books or forms of celestial knowledge. Although all prophets are believed by Muslims to have been immensely gifted, special mention of 'wisdom' or 'knowledge' for a particular prophet is understood to mean that some secret knowledge was revealed to him.
Wisdom: This attribute is spoken of in the Quran in numerous places. The Quran mentions that Abraham prayed for wisdom and later received it.[99] It also mentions that Joseph[100] and Moses[101] both attained wisdom when they reached full age; David received wisdom with kingship, after slaying Goliath;[102] Lot received wisdom whilst prophesying in Sodom and Gomorrah;[103] John the Baptist received wisdom while still a mere youth;[104] and Jesus received wisdom and was vouchsafed the Gospel.[105]

Table of prophets/messengers in the Quran

Name (Arabic & Translit.)
Name (Biblical)
Main Article(s)
Number of times mentioned by name

Ādam Adam Main articles: Adam and Adam and Eve 25
Adam, the first human being, ranks as the first prophet of Islam. Adam and his wife, Eve, fell from the Garden of Eden after they ate from the forbidden tree. On earth, Adam received his first revelations and lived many generations.

Īdrīs Enoch Main articles: Idris (prophet) and Enoch (ancestor of Noah) 2
Idris is believed to have been an early prophet sent to mankind. The traditions that have built around Idris' figure have given him the scope of a prophet, philosopher, writer, mystic and scientist.

Nūh Noah Main articles: Islamic view of Noah and Noah 43
Although best known for his role in the story of the Deluge, Nuh became a primary preacher of monotheism in his day. Muslims believe his faith in God led to him being selected to build the Ark.

Hūd Eber Main articles: Hud (prophet) and Eber 7
Muslims believe that only Hud, for whom the eleventh chapter of the Quran takes its name, and a few other people survived a great storm, similar to the Deluge five generations earlier. God inflicted the storm to punish the people of ʿĀd who had forgotten God.

ālih Saleh Main article: Saleh 9
According to the Quran, God ordered Saleh to leave behind his people, the tribe of Thamud, after they disbelieved and disobeyed God's order to care for a special camel and instead killed it. When Saleh and the believers fled from Thamud, God punished the people with a loud noise from the skies that killed his people instantly. Note that Saleh does not equate to the Shelah mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.

Ibrāhīm Abraham Main articles: Islamic views on Abraham and Abraham 69
Muslims regard Ibrahim as one of the most significant prophets, because they credit him with rebuilding the Kaaba in Mecca. His family included such great figures as his sons, Ishmael and Isaac, as well as his prophetic grandson Jacob. Holy women from his household included Sarah and Hagar. Because of his significance as a patriarch, Abraham is often titled Father of the Prophets.

Lūt Lot Main articles: Islamic view of Lot and Lot (biblical person) 27
Muslims know Lut best for attempting to preach against homosexuality in Sodom and Gomorrah, in addition to encouraging his people to believe in the Oneness of God, although his community mocked and ignored him. Islam denies the acts which the Hebrew Bible attributes to Lot, like drinking and becoming drunk, and having intercourse with and impregnating his two daughters.

Ismā‘īl Ishmael Main articles: Islamic view of Ishmael and Ishmael 12
As a child, Ishmael - with his mother, Hagar - searched for water in the region around Mecca, leading God to reveal the Zamzam Well, which still flows as of 2012. He is also credited with the construction of the Kaaba along with Ibrahim.

Ishāq Isaac Main articles: Islamic view of Isaac and Isaac 17
According to Islamic tradition, Ishaq, the second-born son of Ibrahim, became a prophet in Canaan. He and his brother Ismaïl carried on the legacy of Ibrahim as prophets of Islam.

Ya‘qūb Jacob Main articles: Islamic view of Jacob and Jacob 16
The Quran portrays Jacob as "of the company of the Elect and the Good".[106] He continued the legacy of both his father, Isaac, and his grandfather, Abraham. Like his ancestors, he deliberately worshipped God exclusively.

Yūsuf Joseph Main articles: Islamic view of Joseph and Joseph (son of Jacob) 27
Joseph, son of Jacob and great-grandson of Abraham became a prominent adviser to the pharaoh of Egypt after he interpreted the King's dream which predicted the economic future of Egypt. According to Islam, Joseph received the gift of half of the beauty granted to mankind.

Ayyūb Job Main articles: Job (religious figure) Job in Islam and Job (religious figure) 4
According to Islamic tradition, Job received the reward of a Fountain of Youth, which removed all illnesses, except death, for his service to God in his hometown. It is mentioned that Job lost his wealth, family, and health for many years as test of patience carried out by God.

Shu‘aib Jethro Main article: Shuayb (prophet) 11
According to Islam, God appointed Shu'ayb, a direct descendant of Abraham, to guide the people of Midian and Aykah, who lived near Mount Sinai. When the people of the region failed to listen to his warnings, God destroyed the disbelievers' villages.

Mūsá Moses Main articles: Islamic view of Moses and Moses 136
Moses, whom the Quran refers to more than to any other prophet, had the distinction of revealing the Tawrat (Torah) to the Israelites. The Quran says Moses realized his connection with God after receiving commands from him during a stop at Mount Sinai. He later went on to free the enslaved Hebrews after the Egyptian pharaoh denied God's power. Moses subsequently led the Hebrews for forty years through the desert after they refused to obey God's command and enter the Holy Land. On another trip to Mount Sinai during this long journey, Moses received the Torah and the Ten Commandments.

Hārūn Aaron Main articles: Aaron - Aaron in Islam and Aaron 20
Aaron served as an assistant to his brother Moses. In Islam, he, like Moses, received the task of saving the Israelites from the Egyptian pharaoh. He would often speak for Moses when Moses’ speech-impediment prevented him from doing so himself.

ذو الكفل
Dhul-kifl most likely Ezekiel Main articles: Dhul-Kifl and Ezekiel 2
The status of Dhul-Kifl as a prophet remains debatable within Islam, although all parties to the debate can agree in seeing him as a righteous man who strived in the way of God. Some studies identify Dhul-Kifl with Ezekiel, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Ezekiel.

Dāwud David Main articles: Islamic views on David and David 16
In Islam, God revealed the Psalms to David. Dawud also has significance as the slayer of Goliath and defeater of the Philistines. Note that Islamic tradition and the Bible differ in their accounts of the story of King David and Uriah.

Sulaimān Solomon Main articles: Islamic view of Solomon and Solomon 17
Solomon learned a significant amount of knowledge from his father David before God made him a prophet. According to Islamic tradition, Sulayman received power to manipulate nature (including the jinn) and the power to communicate with and control animals. Known for his honesty and fairness, he also headed a kingdom that extended into southern Arabia.

Ilyās Elijah Main articles: Elijah - Elijah in Islam and Elijah 2
Ilyaseen or Ilyas took over control of the Kingdom of Samaria after the kingdom of Solomon collapsed. Islamic tradition says he attempted to convince the people of Israel of the existence of only one God, but the people remained persistent in their disbelief.

Alyasa‘ Elisha Main articles: Elisha - In Islam and Elisha 2
Elisha took over the task of leading the Israelites after the death of Elijah. He attempted to show the king and queen of Israel the power of God, but they dismissed him as a magician.

Yūnus Jonah Main articles: Jonah - Jonah in Islam and Jonah 4
Islamic tradition states that God commanded Jonah to help the people of Nineveh towards righteousness. However, Nineveh's people refused to listen to his message, so Jonah decided to abandon trying to help them and left. After being swallowed by a whale, Jonah repented in the stomach of the whale until it spewed the prophet out on dry land.

Zakariyyā Zechariah Main articles: Zechariah (priest) - In Islam and Zechariah (priest) 7
Zachariah became the guardian of Mary the mother of Jesus. According to the Quran, he prayed to God asking for a son, since his sterile wife Elizabeth could not provide one. God granted his wishes, lifting his wife's sterility and allowing her to give birth to John the Baptist[107]

Yahyá John the Baptist Main articles: John the Baptist - Islam and John the Baptist 5
Of John, Islam states that, throughout his lifetime, he captivated audiences with his powerful sermons which preached Abrahamic monotheism.

‘Īsá Jesus Main articles: Jesus in Islam and Jesus 25
God sent one of the highest-ranked prophets in Islam, Jesus, to the Children of Israel. The Quran makes it clear that Jesus was not divine nor did he have a share in God's divinity and rather spoke only of the worship of God. Jesus is called the Masih in Muslim belief.

Muhammad N/A Main articles: Muhammad in Islam and Muhammad 5
Muhammad, the last prophet, is important for sealing prophecy in Muslim belief and reinforcing the same faith that started with Adam. Muslims don't view Muhammad as the beginner of a new religion, but the Quran states that Muhammad simply preached the same religion as Adam, Abraham, Noah, Moses, Jesus and all the other prophets.

Other prophets

The Quran mentions only 25 prophets by name but also tells that God sent many other prophets and messengers, to all the different nations that have existed on Earth. Many verses in the Quran discuss this:
"We did aforetime send messengers before thee: of them there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee. ..."[108]
"For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger, ..."[109]
Other prophets in the Quran
Samuel: The Hebrew prophet is referenced as "a prophet" in the Quran,[13] in the context of the anointing of King Saul. Although his name is not given, he is mentioned by name in other Islamic literature.[110]
Luqman: The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief[111] views Luqman as a saint, but not as a prophet. However, other Muslims regard Luqman as a prophet as well.[112]
Khidr: The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr, identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Moses accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint, some see him as a prophet as well.[113]
Dhul-Qarnayn: Dhul-Qarnayn, often identified with Alexander the Great or Cyrus the Great, is a revered ruler in Islam. His narrative, which parallels that of Alexander in the Alexander romance, does not explicitly denote him as a prophet but some Muslims believe he was a prophet as well.[113]
Three prophets of the town: These three unnamed prophets, who were sent to the same town, are referenced in chapter 36 of the Quran.[114]
Other historical prophets
Other historical figures have been at times been regarded as prophets by some Muslim scholars, but debate surrounds this matter. Such figures include:
Confucius (551 BCE–479 BCE))[115]
Socrates (469 BCE–399 BCE)[116]
Plato (428/427 BCE-348/347 BCE): Plato was highly regarded by all thinkers of the Islamic Golden Age. Muslim philosophers, such as Alpharabius, spoke of him as highly as the prophets of Islam[117]. Plato was also regarded as a mystic who possessed great esoteric knowledge.[118]
Mani (AD 216–276)[119]

Prophets in Islamic literature

Numerous other prophets have been mentioned by scholars in the Hadith, exegesis, commentary as well as in the famous collections of Qisas Al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets). These prophets include:
Zechariah, son of Berekiah[124]
Mary, mother of Jesus
Main article: Maryam
A few scholars (such as Ibn Hazm)[127] see Maryam (Mary) as a nabi and a prophetess, since God sent her a message via an angel. The Quran, however, does not explicitly identify her as a prophet. Islamic belief regards her as the holiest of women, but not generally as a prophet. Also, this is most likely to be false as all prophets were men.


1.      Quran 2:131–133
2.      Quran 10:47
3.      The Hebrew root nun-vet-alef ("navi") is based on the two-letter root nun-vet which denotes hollowness or openness; to receive transcendental wisdom, one must make oneself "open". Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7
4.      a b Uri Rubin, Prophets and Prophethood, Encyclopaedia of the Quran
5.      Exodus 3:13-14, 4:13
6.      Isaiah 6:8
7.      Jeremiah 1:7
8.      A.J. Wensinck, Rasul, Encyclopaedia of Islam
9.      Strong's Concordance
10.  Albert Barnes under Malachi 2:7 and 3:1
11.  Hebrews 3:1; John 17:3; Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Ephesians 3:5, 4:11; First Epistle to the Corinthians 28:12
12.  Matthew 11:9-10
13.  a b Quran 2:247
14.  Quran 36:12
15.  a b Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York.
16.  Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, Story of Adam
17.  Brannon M. Wheeler
18.  Quran 19:56
19.  Stories of the Prophets [2] Idris & Noah (pbut) [Sh. Shady Al-Suleiman]
20.  Brannon M. Wheeler (2002) – “Prophets in the Quran”
21.  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Quran 6:89
22.  Quran 26:107
23.  Quran 26:105
24.  Brannon M. Wheeler
25.  a b c d Quran 26:162
26.  Quran 7:65
27.  Brannon M. Wheeler
28.  Quran 7:73
29.  Brannon M. Wheeler
30.  Quran 19:41
31.  a b Quran 2:124
32.  a b Quran 87:19
33.  Quran 22:43
34.  Brannon M. Wheeler
35.  Quran 26:160
36.  Brannon M. Wheeler
37.  a b Brannon M. Wheeler
38.  Quran 19:49
39.  a b Quran 21:73
40.  Brannon M. Wheeler
41.  Brannon M. Wheeler
42.  Brannon M. Wheeler
43.  Quran 7:85
44.  Brannon M. Wheeler
45.  Quran 19:51
46.  a b Quran 53:36
47.  a b Quran 43:46
48.  Brannon M. Wheeler
49.  Quran 19:53
50.  Brannon M. Wheeler
51.  Quran 17:55
52.  Brannon M. Wheeler
53.  Brannon M. Wheeler
54.  Quran 37:123
55.  Quran 37:124
56.  Brannon M. Wheeler
57.  a b Quran 37:139
58.  Quran 10:98
59.  Brannon M. Wheeler
60.  a b Brannon M. Wheeler
61.  Quran 3:39
62.  Brannon M. Wheeler
63.  Quran 19:30
64.  Quran 61:6
65.  Brannon M. Wheeler
66.  Quran 33:40
67.  Quran 34:28 and Quran 2:185
68.  Malcomn Clark (2003). Islam for Dummies.
69.  Quran 10:48
70.  Quran 16:38
71.  Quran 23:46
72.  Quran 40:5
73.  Quran 4:45
74.  Quran 28:75
75.  Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad (2009) (in Urdu). Mizan (2nd ed.). Lahore.
76.  Claim to Mahdi and Messiah
77.  a b c Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Prophets
78.  Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Noah
79.  Quran 19:30–33
80.  Quran 4:69
81.  Quran 3:67
82.  Quran 2:123–133
83.  Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism
84.  Quran 42:13
85.  Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, Holy Books
86.  Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse
87.  Quran 87:18–19
88.  Quran 5:44
89.  Encyclopedia of Islam, Psalms
90.  Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary; Martin Lings, Mecca; Abdul Malik, In Thy Seed
91.  Quran 3:184 and 35:25
92.  Quran 3:184
93.  Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Appendix: On the Injil
94.  Encyclopedia of Islam, Injil
95.  Marmaduke Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Quran; Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary
96.  Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary
97.  Numbers 21:14
98.  Quran 26:83
99.  Quran 12:22
100.              Quran 28:14
101.              Quran 2:251
102.              Quran 21:74
103.              Quran 19:14
104.              Quran 3:48
105.              Quran 38:47 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
106.              "Prophet Zakariyah". The Prophets. Islam101.com.
107.              Quran 40:78
108.              Quran 16:36
109.              A-Z of Prophets in Islam, B M. Wheeler, Samuel
110.              A-Z of Prophets in Islam, B M. Wheeler, Luqman
111.              Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, Prophets in Islam
112.              a b A-Z of Prophets in Islam, B M. Wheeler, Khidr
113.              Quran 36:13–21
114.              Confucianism
115.              Ahmad, Tahir (1998). "Greek Philosophy". Revelation, rationality knowledge and truth. 
116.              Three Muslim Sages, Hossein Nasr, Avicenna and the Philosopher-Scientists, Suhail Academy
117.              Three Muslim Sages, Hossein Nasr, Avicenna and the Philosopher-Scientists, Suhail Academy
118.              Gustav Flügel, Mani, seine Lehre and seine Schriften, 18f 2 (trans. from the Fihrist of Muhammad ben Ishak al Nurrâk, with commentary), pp. 84, 97, 99-100, 102-3.
119.              Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Daniel
120.              Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Ezra
121.              Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Isaiah
122.              Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Jeremiah
123.              a b The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Note 364: "Examples of the Prophets slain were: "the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar" (Matt. 23:35)
124.              Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Adam
125.              A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Appendix: List of Prophets in Islam
126.              Ibn Hazm on women's prophethood


# List of people mentioned by name in the Quran

This article lists persons mentioned in the Quran. God's Islamic names are left to another article

General list

Idrīs (2 times)
Ilyās (2 times)See 37:130 however
Hud (25 times)
Al-Yasa' (2 times - 6:86 and 38:48)
Nūħ (43 times)
Lot (27 times)
Azar (* Q 6:74)Asterisks indicate that a name is mentioned only once.
Ibrāhīm (69 times)
Ishmael (12 times)
Isħaq (17 times)
Ya'qub (16 times)Isra'il is also mentioned about 43 times.
Yūsuf (27 times)
al-'Azīz (Q 12:30, 12:51)One of the names of God as well. Joseph is also addressed with this title in Q 12:78, 12:88.
Job (Q 4:163, 6:84, 21:83, 38:41)
Jonah (Q 4:163, 6:86, 10:98, 37:139)
Shu'ayb (10 times)
Dāwūd (16 times)
Sulayman (17 times)
Dhū l-Kifl (Q 21:85, 38:48)
'Uzayr (* Q 9:30)
Tālūt (Q 2:247, 2:249)
Luqman (* Q 31:13)
Dhul-Qarnayn (3 times)
Saleh (9 times)
Moses' time
Moses (136 times)Moses is the name of the human person mentioned most often in the Quran.
Fir'aun (74 times)
Haman (Q 2:68, 28:8, 28:38, 29:39, 40:24, 40:36)
Hārūn (1919 times if the mention below is considered another Harunor 20 times)
Qarūn (Q 28:76, 28:79, 29:39, 40:24)
Al-Samiri (Q 20:85, 20:87, 20:95)
Isa's time
Imran (father of Maryam) (Q 3:33, 3:35, 66:12)
Zakariyya (7 times)
Yaħyā (5 times)
Maryam (34 times) Maryam is the only female person mentioned in the Quran by her personal name.
'Īsā (25 times) Al-Masih (11 times) and Ibn Maryam (son of Mary) (23 times) as well.
Muhammad's time
Muhammad (5 times: Q 3:144, 33:40, 47:2, 48:29) and Ahmad (Q 61:6)
Zayd (* Q 33:37)
Abu Lahab (* Q 111:1)
Angels mentioned by name
Jibrīl (Q 2:97, 2:98)
Mikael (* Q 2:98)
Maalik (* Q 43:77)
Harut (* Q 2:102)
Marut (* Q 2:102)
Angel of Death (* Q 32:11)
Devils by name
Iblīs (11 times) Also al-Shaytān: the Satan.
False gods by name
Al-Lat (Q 53:19)
Al-'Uzzā (Q 53:19)
Manat(Q 53:20)
Wadd (Q 71:23)
Suwa' (Q 71:23)
Yaghuth (Q 71:23)
Ya'uq (Q 71:23)
Nasr (Q 71:23)
Ba'l (Q 37:125)